Peru, 2003
Country name: Republic of Peru
Governement type: constitutional republic
National holiday: Independance day, 28 July
Historical background: Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by the Spanish conquistadores in 1533. Peruvian independence was declared in 1821, and remaining Spanish forces defeated in 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto Fujomir's election in 1990 saw a decade of turmoil. In 2001, Alejandro Toledo was elected head of government.
Flag description: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a vicuna, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green wreath. Flag.
National anthem: listen the anthem illustrated with the Peruvian coat of arms.
Geographic coordinates:
10 00 S, 76 00 W
Map: Peru
Highest point: Nevado Huascarán 6,768 m
Border countries: Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia & Ecuador
Capital: Lima
Major cities: Arequipa, Lambayeque, Trujillo, Chiclayo, Callao, Chimbote, Piura, Cuzco, Huancayo, Iquitos, Sullana, Pucallpa
Population: 28,4 millions (2003)
Density: 21.75 hab./km²
Life expectancy: 71 years
Ethnic groups: Amerindian 45%, Mestizo 37%, White 15%
Languages: Spanish & Quechua (official), Aymara
Religion: Roman Catholic 90%
Currency: Sol
GDP per capita: € 4,800 (2002 est)
Internet country code: .pe
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